Oral communication process of the following steps
1. Planning
2. Organizing
3. Delivering
4. Controlling

1. Planning: Effective oral communication is to be planned as carefully as the written communication. Decide the desired outcome of your talk find the answer to the following questions

a. What is the purpose of the message?
b. When it is to be delivered?
c. Where is to be presented?
d. Who is the target audience?

2. Organizing: Think about the message, if there are information gaps. Collect required information. Select important facts and figures to support your message. Organize the message by identifying the key points and arranging them in a suitable order.

3. Delivering : Delivering the message is the critical element in oral communication. It effectiveness depends on the style chosen by the speaker. The acceptance of the style depends on the following

a. Articulation (tone, volume, rate of speech, pitch, clarity of voice and modulation)
b. Facial expressions(sincerity, warmth, assertiveness ,diplomacy)
c. Body stance and gestures (ease, eye contact , enthusiasm)

4. Controlling : Effective delivery requires monitoring the feedback and adapting to the situation. When delivering the message monitor the feedback constantly


Effective writing is logical process of developing and composing message to satisfy the needs of audience. it involves the following steps
1. Planning
2. Organizing
3. Composing
4. Revising and editing

Planning - Planning is the thinking process It involves knowing the audience knowing the purpose of writing and knowing the information required to meet the expectations of audience. Whether it is a letter a meme or an email or a report if it is worth writing , it is worth well

• First know who is your reader
• Know the purpose of your writing- either to explain about the events , objects, or people , to influence attitude of receiver , to accept a point of view or to provide information on what and how to do or keep information in files and save them for future reference
• Collect information- collect the required information which is accuracy , credibility, relevance, ethically and legality
• Select appropriate channel- based on the audience and the purpose of writing a suitable channel and medium are to be chosen

2. Organizing; Organizing involves the following steps
• Define your main idea-make a statement of the topic one centrals print that sums up everything.
• Limit the scope - Decide the whether it is one page statement (or)a 10 page report.
• structure your message and message can be told directly (or) indirectly and make a draft which is good for your presentation .

3. Composing: Effective writing is possible only when the levels of comment of the reader and purpose of writing are kept in mind. The writing should draw affection, develop interest, and generate understanding and response.

- use words that indicate good manners
Greeting - Good morning
Apologies - Sorry/regret. Excuse me
Wishes - Good luck, Congratulation, Hope you would
Sympathies - Sorry to know the problem
Requests - Please, Kindly
Acknowledgement - Thank you, We appreciate we are indebted

Don't use non- discriminatory words.

The use of words that refer negatively to group of people such as gender, age (or) disability.

Biases | Unacceptable | Preferable
Man | Man kind man-made | human beings
Man | Manpower | Human power
Using female | Author, actress | Actor, Authour,
Gender works | Stewardess | Cab in.
Using Special | Woman Doctor | Doctor, nurse.
Designations | Male Nurse |

- Avoid phrases that show intimacy such as "Just between you and me"
- Avoid boasting and sermonizing like writers approach in wrong way writing like i am O.K and you are not O.K
- Make good choice of words.

a. Use familiar words that most of us use in every day conversation.
Unfamiliar | Familiar
Endeavor | Try
Utilize | Use
Initiate | Begin

b. Choose to light words
Heavy | Light
Antiquated | Old
Acceded | Agreed

c. Choose right words that your best purpose
Wrong | Right
In regardless | Regardless
Can't hardly | Hardly
Can able | Can.

d. When you want to say emphatically select strong words. sometimes weaken words serve the purpose best

Weak | Strong
Eminently Successful Business Person | Tycoon
Generally dealing market | Bear market

e. Prefer to abstract words.
Abstract | Concrete
Induce Course | In 3 months
A Huge loss | A 40% decline in profit.
The leading Company |First among the top 100 it companies.

f. Prefer specific to general words
General | specific
Countenance | Face
Reside | Stay
Aggregate | Total

g. Use correct idioms
Fault Idioms | Correct Idioms
Superior than | Superior to

In accordance to | In accordance with
Comply to | comply with
In Search for | In Search of

4. Revising and editing - these is the last step in the process of written communication . here every writer should go for revising the article what he has written and find out if there is any grammatical mistakes and edit the matter in an easy way that reader should understand.

About Author / Additional Info:
Raghu yadaganti, professor in business communication

Collected prof.c.s.g krishnamacharyulu business communication text book