Organic food:
Food produced from crops or livestock without using synthetic fertilizer or pesticides and genetically modified organisms.

Conventional food:
Food produced by using synthetic fertilizers or pesticides which is mostly followed now.

Who certifies?
National Standards for Organic Products the requirements placed by them must be satisfied .and national organic program by USDA does the organic certification.

General information:
When 50% less fertilizer and 97% less pesticide used than our normal usage their will be 20% yield in the organic farm.

Some research studies;
- Developed country organic farming-92% yield than conventional farming
- Developing countries organic farming-80% yield than conventional farming
- In organic forming some synthetic pesticides are allowed they are Bt ,pyrethurum ,and rotenone

Certification procedure:
The used must be free from synthetic fertilizers before three years of farming and this will checked by some officers named organic inspectors and they will check the land in a time interval of one year.

Then farmers must maintain their records
Sampling :
In produce -different part of the plant will be collected and minimum of 200g/commodity/sample/test must be collected and submitted to the accredited laboratory must be collected in glass or plastic bags.
In water and soil-soil-100g and water 1l

Sample preservation:
Samples kept at 0-4-c their should be no addition of chemical preservative

Organic labeling:
100% organic:
Only organic grown ingredients must be present except water and salt.

95% organic ingredients except water and salt and 5% non organic ingredients.

Made with organic ingredients:
70% organic and 30% non organic ingredients except water and salt and must state which ingredients belong to organic category

1. The conversion period is the time between the start of organic management and certification of crops and/or animal husbandry etc.,
2. A minimum of 3 years conversion period shall be required for converting organic farming system from conventional farming system.
3. From the start of the conversion period all the prohibited inputs listed in NPOP shall not be used.
4. The conversion period is calculated from the date of registration or from the date of last application of prohibited input.
5. Product can be certified organic when the National Organic Standards are met during a conversion period of at least 2 years before sowing or in the case of perennial crops, other than grassland, at least 3 years ( 36 months) before the first harvest of the certified organic crop.
6. The conversion period is reduced or shall be extended based on the past use of land.

Maintenance of Organic Management
1. The organic production shall be maintained continuously.
2. Switch back from organic to conventional and again back to organic is not allowed.
3. In cases of switch back the operator shall once again undergo full conversion period.

Choice of Crop and Varieties
1. Any Crop or Variety/Hybrids except GMO which suits to the location shall be grown.
2. Varieties resistant to pest and diseases shall be preferred.
3. GMO'S are not allowed in organic farming.
4. In the choice of varieties, genetic diversity shall be taken into consideration.

4.1.8 Fertilizing and Soil Conditioning
1. Fertilization policy shall be to increase or at least to maintain soil fertility and the biological activity.
2. Any biodegradable material of microbial, plant or animal origin produced on organic farms shall form the basis of the fertilization programme.
3. The fertility and biological activity of the soil shall be maintained or increased, in the first instance, by cultivation of legumes, green manures, or deep rooting plants in an appropriate multi annual crop rotation programme.
4. Total quantity of manures applied to agricultural production shall not exceed 170 kgs nitrogen per hectare per year. Wherever necessary the total stocking density shall be reduced to avoid exceeding the limit of 170 kgs nitrogen per hectare.

About Author / Additional Info:
i am learner so trying to develop my skills and knowledge through publishing some known information