Human milk is often the sole dietary source for the first few months in life. It contains all the nutrients necessary for the infant to thrive, but also ingredients that may provide health benefits beyond those of traditional nutrients. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) comprise part of these functional ingredients.Oligosaccharide is the third most abundant component of human milk. human milk oligosaccharides are clinically relevant to protection against infant diarrhea as a result of Campylobacter, caliciviruses, and diarrhea of all causes in breast-fed infants.

Human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) plays an important role in protecting neonates from pathogenic microorganism especially the enteric bacteria.
The presence of HMO in human milk is 5-10 (g/l)

Benefits of breast-feeding compared to formula feeding:
• Less diarrhea
• Fewer and less severe episodes of infection
• Higher intelligence
• Less necrotizing enterocolitis
• Less atopy
• Possible protection from sudden infant death syndrome
• Long term health effects

Effects of HMO:
It has a various local effects and systemic effects on the human system
The building blocks of milk oligosaccharides are the 5 monosaccharides D-glucose (Glc), 3 D-galactose (Gal), N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), L-Fucose (Fuc), and sialic acid (N-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) in humans, and both Neu5Ac and N-glycolyl neuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) in all other species).

HMO as greater importance as a potential probiotic and immunogenic compounds. The HMO is resistant to low pH and resistant to pancreatic and brush border enzymes and bacterial degradation takes place in the colon due to the partial absortion of oilgisaccharide in the intestine . Probiotic, Anti-adhesive, Anti-microbial, Glycome modification are the important functions of human milk oligosaccharide.

sources of HMO:
Some of the natural sources of HMO like oligosaccharide were Goat's milk is a rich source of HMO-like oligosaccharides and may be suitable for supplementing formula. These oligosaccharides separate as by-products in goat cheese production and can be isolated by membrane technology on a large scale ; and by extracting the available source we can supplement the compound in the formula feed milk for the babies to acquire the similar advantages as if in breast feeding milk .

This article will beware of the mothers who doesn't want to encourage the breast feeding to their babies and the importance of human milk and its functional component oligosaccharide has been clearly stated .and the babies with lactose intolerance has to be feed with human milk since it contains lactose comparatively low to that of other milk and it is also easily digestible for the babies.

About Author / Additional Info:
S. Divya
B.Tech(food technology)
College of food and dairy technology