When the Hubble Constant was discovered whereby more distant starlight appears weaker on the average, as shifted to the red end of the light spectrum, this decrease was explained as either a loss per distance or a loss per increase in recessional speed per distance. The original Tired Light theory proposed by Fritz Zwicky explained it as a loss per distance, but his explanation was discarded because of a Tolman Brightness Test. Big Bang eventually became established when a Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation was discovered. However, further analysis nullifies the Tolman Brightness Test as applicable to Big Bang. The empirical evidence of the time actually supported Tired Light instead.
The nullification is with regard to an extended distance between light emissions due to recessional speeds in contrast to light being emitted in the past per distance. Consider observer O observes starlight simultaneously from stars A, B, C, etc. Their respective distances are perceived as d, 2d, 3d, etc. During time t, according to Big Bang, A moved from the center of the universe to apparent distance d at speed v, star B moved from the center of the universe the apparent distance 2d at speed 2v, and star C moved from the center of the universe the apparent distance 3d at speed 3v. However, the simultaneous observance of the light does not mean it was actually emitted simultaneously by A, B and C, as B's light moved twice the distance at speed c, and C's light moved thrice the distance at speed c. A, B and C were actually closer to each other at different times when their light seen by O was emitted. If we subtract B's speed from C's speed, etc., then the common value rendered is v. This v relates to a progressively shorter distance d of the past, which is exact opposite the expanded distance d from recessional speed v. They nullify each other.
Tired light was discarded because of the apparent evidence of the time, but the evidence actually supported tired light. If the decrease in energy per distance is proportional to the light energy, then the same light energy at twice the distance decreases the same for the equal distance of the first half of twice distance, and then decreases less for the second equal distance. However, if the decrease in light energy is quantized instead, as to decrease in equal amount per distance for a particular light energy, then the apparent effects of Big Bang and Tired Light explanations remain mathematically equal.
In this respect, both Big Bang and Tired Light are numerically equal in effect with regard to the Hubble Constant for the value of the decrease in light energy per distance. How, then, does the universe expand according to Big Bang and does not expand according to Tired Light? Note that the speed of the Hubble Constant H at a distance equal to the diameter of the hydrogen atom per light speed, which is electromagnetic in origin, approximates very closely to the gravitational force in ratio to the electrostatic force of two touching hydrogen atoms. Paul Dirac noted similar approximations and proposed the gravitational constant decreases as the universe expands in order for the Hubble Constant to remain constant instead of decreasing for longer distances between stars as the universe expands. However, if the electrostatic constant squared also decreases the same while the universe expands, then the mathematical equivalence between Big Bang and Tired Light remains intact.
This mathematical equivalence is also supported by relativity theory. By it, light speed and relative motion are locally perceived the same whether the observer is in gravitational free space or in a gravitational field that is relatively homogeneous. Thus, as the universe expands, its appearance remains relatively the same. There is also, in effect, a Cosmological Principle whereby all observers relatively perceive themselves as located at the center of the universe, as according to space-time curvature of general relativity.
Both theories have contributing factors. Big Bang proposes a frame of reference whereby the origins of matter can be studied. Tired Light offers a more complete explanation of gravity as a simple vacuum effect created with the emission of radiant energy. The emitted radiation is gradually absorbed by a virtual field of dark energy maintaining the various formations of matter and its gravitational effect. Since the recycling effect is gradual, it constitutes a long rage effect consistent with the relatively minute force of gravity in comparison to electrostatic forces. This long range effect is evident with regard to the speed of the Hubble Constant at a distance equal to the diameter of the hydrogen atom equaling the ratio of the gravitational force of the hydrogen atom in ratio to its electrostatic force.
Big Bang also offers an explanation for a Microwave Background Radiation as the origin of energy before matter formed while the universe cooled from its expansion. A particular microwave energy also relates in ratio to a relativistic fourth order effect that also approximates to the ratio of the gravitational to electrostatic force of the hydrogen atom. Together, Big Bang and Tired Light could possibly entail a more complete unified field theory.
About Author / Additional Info:
I am author of the book A Mystic History In Light Of Physics, which can be purchased at Amazon. I first was inspired to explain gravity in a 1969 philosophy class at Lane Community College.