Epidemic diseases are the diseases from which people suffer at the same time. It is seen that the germs or bacteria or viruses of the epidemic diseases appear in a large quantity during epidemic. The disease spreads in the whole area where these germs spread. Depending on the area affected by the epidemic, the epidemics are classified into local epidemic, general epidemics and global pandemic. The reason for this is not exactly known. Today as the availability of medical aid is much more, the epidemics do not claim much lives. But there were times when all the people of some village would die due to epidemics as there were no sources and medicinal help available as compared to today.
In fact, today due to the awareness about health and sanitation, the environments favorable for the germs causing epidemics are hardly seen. So such germs do not grow easily. Also, if anyone suffering from any disease that is likely to spread as an epidemic is detected, immediately the patient is segregated and treated. This prevents the spreading of the causative germs of epidemics. Today we have many medicines available to control spread of diseases at mass level.
The agents causing epidemics are called pathogens. A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. The commonly known pathogens are Bacteria, Viruses, Protozoa, Fungi and Parasites. Those Pathogens spread through contaminated water, food, air, or objects used by the patient. So, untreated contaminated water, impure polluted air etc. can cause the spread of epidemics. In developed countries, in many areas, the people still get contaminated water and the epidemics can spread fast in those areas. This is the typical mode of transmission for the infectious agents of disease like Cholera Hepatitis A and Polio.
Depending an epidemic can be subjective depending on what is expected. An epidemic may be a local epidemic restricted to outbreak in one very small locality, more general epidemic having an outbreak areas or even global pandemic having a global outbreak of the disease. Because it is based on what is expected or through normal, a few cases of a very rare disease like rabies may be classified as an epidemic, while many may cases of a common disease like common cold would not be called epidemic.
Hence care is to be taken by all to avoid spread of any epidemic diseases.
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A teacher by profession