By: Dr. Rehma Hafeez (Sr. Lecturer)
H.M.P.G. College, Kanpur
Anything which is unconventional in teaching learning process as termed a innovation. It comprise a wide area of education. When a machine does not work properly or does not give desired output then overhauling is recommended. The same formula applies with our current educational setup. It needs overhauling at every step, whether it is the area of finance, administration, teaching methodology, learning strategies or curriculum formation etc.
To encourage participation of teachers we need to empower the teacher community. Empowerment regarding finance, decision making, introduction of new academic programmes and setting time-table etc. Finance is the axis of every developmental activity. No change is possible without financial assistance. Not only financial assistance is needed but the autonomy is more important suppose you have a lot of money but don't have a right to spend a peny without the permission of higher authorities who are least affected by the local problems. Then there is no use of that money. In my opinion as the financial strength is important so as financial autonomy is needed from the very basic level. If the teacher think that a particular equipment, device or programme is important for maximizing the learning he/she should have right to purchase or introduce the programme in desired manner but unfortunately our system does not permit this kind of autonomy. Most of the colleges have sufficient financial resources but due to a very tough impractical and time cnsuming process of acquiring money so many good ideas remain being unfulfilled. When money is sanctioned the idea, programme, device or technology become out dated. In this way we can't get the benefit of that money. A very useful saying I would like to mention here - "a stitch in time saves nine".
As far as teaching methods are concerned most of the teachers among us depend on lecture method. It has become the only practiced way of teaching. If a teacher does not understand the concept of teaching and remains satisfied with the role of information provider then who would change the system. Education is transformation of knowledge, skills and behaviour for this purpose we have to go to the level of the student and find out the weaknesses, trace out the doors and openings to send the message of change. It is the duty of a teacher to drag the attention of students in classroom. Competency in subject matter is the for most requisite to hold students attention in classroom. At present majority of teachers follow traditional methods. Gestalt psychology stressed a lot on meaningful learning Mind mapping is a way to see the whole picture and details, it is a dynamic way to capture significant points of information. There are three As of mind mapping -
Accept | Apply | Adopt
The initial stage is to accept any idea, concept or change, next is to apply in teaching learning process then adopt it as a behaviour pattern. In this way a single idea can transform the face of the whole system.
Always begin the class by putting central theme in the middle of the board.
Workout words from the central theme in all directions like branches.
Use symbols, colours, words, pictures to show the theme or explain the concept.
Leave sufficient space between the lines to provide clarity to concept.
Make the mind map bold, colourful and attractive so that it may be remembered.
Practice it before going to class.
Teaching is the communication of information as we are concern with higher education, at this level majority of students are aware with theoretical information, the area where they lack is to communicate their ideas and thoughts, the other is the application of knowledge and skills. Pt Jawahar Lal Nehru stated that higher education is nothing but dessimination of knowledge and skills. This idea was given more than 50 years ago but still it is in infancy. No efforts are made to achieve this target.
Teacher is the eliminator of darkness of ignorance not only in - terms of literacy but for all sorts of ignorance. Teacher has to leave the habit to stick with the old, out dated and fruitless method of teaching accept and adopt new ways provided by educational technology.
We are exposed by so many innovations brought by educational technology. It implies the use of all types of modern media, print and non-print media, electronic media, theories, principles, methods, material to maximize learning out comes and improving teaching process. Strategies provide the teacher and learner a highly specialized way to teach and learn. There is a lot of flexibility available in modern methods. Higher education demands maximum participation of students, they should be treated as participants in the classroom not as a student. This would help in developing communication skill. We often hear that I know this concept but I can't explain so to remove this hindrance maximum participation of students should be encouraged.
Another aspect is not to be neglected that is orientation of teachers. Reorientation programes should be conducted time to time. They posses a great value in quality improvement, academic friendly environment of colleges encourage the teachers to brush up their academic potentialities and participation. Reorientation programmes also break monotony in teaching. Teacher can also apply other methods in classrooms such as interactive method, project method. Project method is useful in teaching of literature. It helps to develop inner most capabilities of the learner in a healthy and tension free environment.
To develop harmony among teachers team teaching can be introduced. More than one teacher in a class proves to be more contributive in terms of quality education as well as knowledge sharing among teachers. In this way use of lecture method may be minimize and other methods can be introduced. Questions answer or enquiry method are very helpful in developing enquisitive mind because lecture method is not helpful in developing critical and reasoning ability in students.
To remove monotony and to drag attention of slow learners teacher can use jerck technology. It has so many ways, as mirror image word and letter can be used during class, it gives them jerck which brought them back mentally in the class, disproportionate words or very small writing in a bigger surface can be used. To drag attention of the class double negative sentences, unusual sentences can also be used. Suppose you can say - "I like you but I don't unlike him." Or why are you so systematically unsystematic etc. A teacher should posses a rich vocabulary. More than one word is always needed to clarify any concept or express the real meaning to different students in a class because each one has its own way of understanding. No single method is useful for all subjects with the change in content method of teaching should also be changed.
Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma stated that present education system is like a flower of paper it emphasizes on collection of facts and figures unfair competitions and ignores social justice and interest.
Co-curricular activities are as important as teaching activities. Lack of co-curricular activities leads various problems such as unrest, dullness, monotony, frustration, drinking, drug addiction, smoking etc. quality activities provide freshness, energy, peace, competition,. Pleasure and satisfaction to students.
The final and utmost innovation is required in the system of evaluation. Evaluation should not be structured and time bound not in higher level only but should be introduced from secondary level. There should be autonomy at the level of students as well at teacher's level. Open book system is the best way to eliminate infair practices in the examinations. Skilled and competent paper setters are required for these type of exams. Academic staff colleges can organize special training for examination process and for paper setters. Computerized diagnostic tests should be developed to get pinpointed feedback. Multiple choice type descriptive method may be introduced. It is presumed that success of a teacher depends on his/her ability to state his/her ideas clearly to the students. A positive attitude makes work easier and a negative attitude makes the task harder. Teaching is a profession which implies a highly specialized intellectual services. Teachers effectiveness depends upon his/her mental health, knowledge of subject matter, personality, social and professional adjustment and most importantly on his/her attitude.
Education is the third eye of an individual and is considered as development of modesty, faithfulness, efficiency, skills, spiritualism, curiosity, etiquets, humanity, health, and feeling of universal brotherhood,
Teacher should involve pupils more in setting their goals and identifying ways of achieving them.
Maximizing opportunities for pupils to be enquisitive accessing via new technologies diverse material and resources so that they can become more discriminatory about evidence and learn to exercise judgement about it.
Provide opportunities for pupils to learn from each other and benefit from collaborative enquiry.
Be more out word and appreciate the benefits of wider community and parent involvement to support and enhance learning.
1. Annice James, Jayanthi Alwan "Management of Communication in Classrooms with special reference to mathematics". Vol. 8 - No.3 November - 2008.
2. S. Thangarajathi "Effectiveness of Mind Mapping Technique in Teaching Mathematics" - Vol-8 No.3 November, 2008.
3. Soti Shivendra Chandra, Amit Sharma and Sanjay Kr. Sharma - "Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma (1918-1979) Vol. - 8 - No. - 3 November, 2008.
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