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Various causes of mental retardation in children

BY: Deena David | Category: Health and Fitness | Post Date: 2009-07-31

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   Deena David
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There can be various causes of mental retardation in children. Mental retardation usually occurs because of problems during birth. It can also be due to problems or diseases in pregnancy. Sometimes mental retardation can occur because of illnesses that occur after the birth of the child. All the various causes of mental retardation can be classified under these.

Mental retardation can be very disabling for the child. The child may not be as active as the peers and also have decreased intelligence. It also can cause a lot of stress on the parents' lifestyle other than stretching their financial resources.

Prenatal Causes of mental retardation in children

1. Inherited disorders of the central nervous system can cause mental retardation. Other conditions like galactosemia, mucopolysaccharidosis and organic aciduria can also result in mental retardation.

2. Chromosomal disorders like Down's syndrome, Kleinfelter syndrome and Fragile X syndrome can also lead to mental retardation.

3. Environmental factors and nutritional factors like deficiency of Iodine can also cause the same result.

4. Developmental defects can also cause mental retardation. Here the brain fails to develop normally. Microcephaly, Craniostenosis, cretinism and porencephaly can also result in mental retardation.

5. Maternal factors that cause mental retardation:

a. Teratogenic drug use during pregnancy. In this condition, either due to unavoidable circumstances where lives saving drugs have to be given to the mother, the drug used may cause certain abnormal development in the child which can lead to mental retardation.

b. Infections of the mother during pregnancy can also cause mental retardation. The various infections in the mother that can cause mental retardation are rubella, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalic inclusion disease, herpes, syphilis and HIV.

c. Placental insufficiency can also lead to mental retardation.

d. Radiation during pregnancy, antepartum haemorrhage and toxemia of pregnancy canb also lead to mental retardation.

Birth factors that can cause mental retardation:

1. Birth injuries to the child can cause mental retardation. Forceps delivery and other such deliveries have a higher risk of birth injury to the child.

2. Hyposic and ischaemic encephalopathy can also cause mental retardation.

3. Intracerebral haemorrhage where there is bleeding in the brain an also cause mental retardation.

Factors that can cause mental retardation after the birth of the child:

1. Head injuries where the brain damage is present.
2. Decreased oxygen supply to the brain.
3. Kernictures or infantile jaundice.
4. Hypoglycemia or decreased sugar levels in the blood.
5. Malnutrition.
6. Child abuse where the injury can cause brain damage or head injury.
7. Autism.

All the above conditions can also cause mental retardation in the children.

Article Source: http://www.saching.com

About Author / Additional Info: I have completed my Masters Degree in Paediatric Nursing. I am a writer with a passion for writing. I have been writing for some blogs and other sites. Comments are welcome at the following e mail address: deenaanddavid@gmail.com

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