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Types of diabetes | Role of glucose and insulin in causing diabetes

BY: Deena David | Category: Health and Fitness | Post Date: 2010-02-01

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Diabetes is considered the most common endocrine disease and is characterized by metabolic abnormalities and by long-term complications affecting the eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels. All these metabolic abnormalities are a common feature, namely hyperglycemia, that is the high levels of glucose in the blood.

There are several forms of diabetes, of which the most common are insulin-dependent diabetes previously called as type 1 diabetes and, that is because the treatment consists in most cases in the administration of insulin and diabetes type 2 or insulin-dependent diabetes.

Role of glucose and insulin in causing diabetes

Before saying something about each type of diabetes I would like to recall some notions about the glucose and insulin. Glucose is a simple carbohydrate, found in the food composition or other complex carbohydrates. In the body, glucose is the primary energy source for cells and especially for neurons and brain structures that cannot work only with glucose. It is particularly important for our health if the blood glucose levels are constant. Adjusting this level is achieved by insulin, a hormone secreted from the pancreas. It is well to remember that insulin was discovered in 1921 by the Romanian scientist, Dr. Nicolae Paulescu. The main role of insulin is to facilitate penetration of blood glucose into the cells and to limit the release of glucose from storage.

Type I diabetes

So, poor or complete lack of secretion of insulin is registered in type 1 diabetes, which occurs mainly in children and youth or insulin resistance. On the other hand, what occurs in type 2 diabetes, at maturity, will result in hyperglycemia. This means that there is abnormally high blood glucose. All issues arising from this are due to the fact that high levels of glucose for a long time will lead to biochemical reactions between glucose and protein structures of various organs, which finally manifests itself through a lot of problems in the kidney, eye level , nerves, skin, heart and blood vessels etc..

Many people think that this type of diabetes occurs due to the excessive consumption of sweets or carbohydrate supplements. Though diet can cause diabetes, the most common cause is existence of genetic mutations, which makes one highly susceptible to the disease.

Unlike patients with type 1 diabetes who is usually less than 30 years old, one with type 2 is a mature person over 45 years, usually obese, hypertensive. In these individuals there is a resistance to insulin in cells.

Treatment of diabetes

Treatment of diabetes is difficult and varies depending on the type of diabetes.

If the type 2 diabetic, who says he is obese, indication of exercise combined with diet is the first step to be taken. For a diabetic with type 1 diabetes, which usually follows treatment with insulin, diet and physical effort are more delicate issues. It is very important that these patients should be guided in a specialized center where they learn how to control the disease. It is known that physical effort, especially aerobic exercise helps glucose to be consumed, with the risk of hypoglycemia occuring when carbohydrate intake is not adequate

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